There are also the untouchables who are considered as outcaste and perform occupations like skinning dead animals and scavenging. The people of these classes derive their livelihood from specific occupations and the children born in their families follow the suit, acquiring the appropriate occupation as per their caste or jati, thus, maintaining the hierarchical ranking of occupations and hereditary occupational specialization.
Proper rituals, rules, and regulations govern the occupational pursuits and appropriate social behaviour of the people of these classes, including rules related to marriage as well.
Origin and History of Caste System in India There are many theories relating to the origin of caste system in the country.
While a few of these theories are historical, some are religious or biological.
They started conquering regions all over north India and the locals were driven south towards jungles of mountains in northern part of the country at the same time.
The social stratification resulted in the exploitation of sudras and untouchables.Article 15 (1) of the constitution enjoins the State not to make any discrimination on the grounds of caste against any citizen.Article 15 (2) of the constitution mandates that no citizen shall be subjected to any disability and restriction on grounds of race or caste.Article 16 (4), 16 (4A), 16 (4B) and Article 335 empowers to State to make reservations in appointments for posts in favour of Schedule Castes.Article 330 provides for reservation of seats in Lok Sabha for Schedule Castes.There is another theory pertaining to the origin of the caste system that states castes originated from the different body parts of ‘Brahma’, the Hindu deity referred to as the ‘Creator of the World.’ Going by this theory, inter-caste marriages, mixture of blood or contact of members of different races is regarded as a heinous crime.Historically, it is believed that the caste system began in India around 1500 B. It is believed that the Aryans, who possessed fair skin, came from northern Asia and southern Europe that contrasted with the indigenous natives of India.Code of Conduct Besides the stratification of people in different castes, these castes also followed some strict rules and regulations which were followed by the members of the caste religiously.Rules especially pertaining to religious worship, meals and marriage dominated their lives.The so-called upper castes held the leadership positions in society, religion, and economy of the nation.However, a number of social reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy and various others gave their entire life working towards opposing evil practices and educating masses.