Socrates In Plato`S The Republic Essay, Research Paper At the end of Book II in Benjamin Jowett’s translation of The Republic, Socrates began a detailed description of the construction of a good city.
The good city is Plato’s view of the perfect state and its relation to the human soul, and its four virtues.
The next position is the military, which takes orders from the rulers and sends orders to the workers, which are last on the pyramid.
The only virtue that cannot be placed in the pyramid is justice.
Temperance, also known as self-discipline, is needed by the workers, so that they do not desire to be in the ruler’s position. the rulers and their subjects agree on who the rulers should be.” (The Republic 431e) Temperance is also used to control the desire to go against one’s free-will.
It is seen that each position has its own importance in the community, and for the community to function correctly each one must agree on their position in life. Plato says, “To be self-disciplined is somehow to order and control the pleasures and desires.” (The Republic 430e) The last virtue to be discussed is Justice otherwise known as morality.
Next is passion, which is the fighting for what is right, and the two together work as allies. the rational part is wise and looks out for the whole of the mind, isn’t it right for it to rule, and for the passionate part to be its subordinate and its ally.” (The Republic 441e) As passion and reason work together, passion is found in the military.
The last part is desire, which can be found in temperance, and is closely related to passion.
The way that the virtues are arranged makes it impossible for any of them to mix, be missing, or trade places.
One must have all four virtues to be completely moral.
Each virtue is directly related to each other in an indirect way.
The next issue we will discuss is how Plato would apply his theory of the individual soul to his theory of the proper political order.
In order to discuss this we mush first discuss Plato’s beliefs in the theory of the forms because, Plato’s concept of what politics and government should be is a direct result of his belief in the theory of forms.